The Food Standards Agency (FSA)/National Association of Master Bakers’ project specifically looked at reducing salt levels in tin loaves and bloomers, as well as considering no-time dough, sponge-and-dough and long fermentation processes using a variety of flour types, improver types, dough temperatures and rest times.Test baking was carried out in Marriage’s test bakery and also in a range of craft bakery settings.Research showed that:l there are no technical barriers to reducing salt to the FSA 2012 salt reduction target (1g salt or 400mg sodium, average) or below in craft bakeries; all that is required is simple recipe changes and good process control.l bakers can estimate the current salt levels of their bread using a tool developed following the research project and without submitting a sample to the public analyst. By following simple guidance on recipe changes, they can make gradual step-wise reductions towards the FSA 2012 salt target and below.Tools developedAs a result of the project, two salt reduction tools for bakers have now been developed. The first is a web tool, which can be found at www.food.gov.uk/saltcalculator. This enables craft bakers to calculate the current salt level of their bread, by simply entering the amount of flour and salt they use, and to gauge where they are in comparison to the FSA’s target. The second is an easy-to-use table, which provides guidance on stepwise recipe changes that can be made by bakers to reduce the salt content of their bread while retaining consumer acceptance of the new recipes. This can be found at: www.food.gov.uk/news/newsarchive/2010/jul/bakers.Local authority projectTo disseminate the results of the project and the tools that have been developed, the FSA is working in partnership with the NAMB and local authorities. From July to November, local authority officers may make contact with bakers in their area to talk to them about reducing salt in bread.The support offered will involve two visits. At the first, a calculation or a sample will be taken to determine the current salt level in a baker’s bread, advice will be given as to how to reduce salt and any questions answered. A follow-up visit around three months after the first will be made to assess progress, and a further sample or calculation made to determine the reductions made.The results and feedback on any issues arising will be collected centrally. This will enable the FSA and the NAMB to promote the success of the actions of the craft bakery sector in reducing the salt content of bread and providing their consumers with an even healthier product.We encourage you to take part in this initiative, which has the potential to make a really positive impact on the health of your customers and to promote the products on offer by the craft bakery sector.l For further information please contact: Alette Addison at the FSA on [email protected] or the NAMB on 01920 468061.
Ronald F. Thiemann, Bussey Professor of Theology and former dean of Harvard Divinity School (HDS), died on Nov. 29 at the age of 66.A noted scholar, theologian, teacher, and administrator, Thiemann was a leading voice in discussions about contemporary theology and the role of religion in American public life. Prior to being named, in 2006, to the Bussey Professorship — Harvard’s oldest endowed chair in theology — he was professor of theology and professor of religion and society at HDS.Thiemann was appointed dean and John Lord O’Brian Professor of Divinity at HDS in 1986 and served in that capacity until he stepped down from the position as dean in 1999 to devote his time fully to teaching, lecturing, and writing.A resident of Concord, Mass., Thiemann is survived by his wife, Beth A. Thiemann; his two daughters, Sarah Thiemann Connolly and Laura Thiemann Scales; his sons-in-law, William J. Connolly and Daniel Scales; and four grandchildren.Visiting hours will take place at Dee Funeral Home, 27 Bedford St., Concord, on Tuesday from 5 to 8 p.m. Funeral services will be held at the Lutheran Church of the Redeemer, 60 Forest Park Road, Woburn, Mass., on Wednesday at 10 a.m. A memorial service will be held at Harvard University early in 2013.To read the full obituary, visit the HDS website.
Stories of learning, teaching, and turning points, in the Experience series.Laurel Thatcher Ulrich is Harvard’s 300th Anniversary University Professor, a feminist scholar with a taste for history from the bottom up and an appreciation for the pedagogic power of artifacts like hand-woven cloth and furniture.In 1990, she unraveled a cryptic 18th-century diary in “A Midwife’s Tale,” which earned a Pulitzer Prize. Soon after came a MacArthur Fellowship, and then — in 1995, when Ulrich was 57 — an invitation to teach at Harvard.Ulrich grew up in Sugar City, Idaho, the dutiful and precocious daughter in a fifth-generation Mormon family. She studied English at the University of Utah and was already married and pregnant by the time she graduated as valedictorian. She followed her husband east for his graduate studies, fell in with a writerly collective of Mormon feminists, and earned a master’s degree part time.Ulrich enrolled in a Ph.D. program in history at the University of New Hampshire (she had never taken a history course) and set to work. Her first scholarly paper, on funeral sermons for women, included a line that not only marked her for fame, but was an expression of her own story: “Well-behaved women seldom make history.”Q: What were your earliest influences as a scholar and writer?A: I came from a family who read books and talked, then talked about ideas. When I got married I told my husband he hadn’t joined the Thatcher family, he had joined the Thatcher Debating Society.That was almost literally true because my dad was a debate coach. He taught everything. This was small-town Idaho. In his first job he coached the girls’ basketball team. He did everything, but he was basically a social studies teacher. He had been a debate coach before he became a principal, and then as I grew up he was superintendent of this little consolidated school district that we were in.He was totally into politics, as the entire family was. My older brother, who was seven years older, had been a debater and naturally went to law school. It was that environment, where you talked, you read, you had a question, you went to the bookshelf, you went to the library.My dad had wanted to be a lawyer as a young man, but he had no money because he too had come from a rural family. He had gone to the University of Utah. Here I am talking about my father. My father and mother were my primary influences, as is usually the case. My dad had been in theater at the University of Utah, and he had been a debater at the University of Utah. So I ended up going to the University of Utah, which was kind of a family tradition.My mother went to the University of Utah, and she had — as was true in the 1920s — she did what women did, which was to do the Normal certificate to teach. But then she met my dad, who was boarding at her parents’ house in the small town where she grew up. She got married and had kids and didn’t ever teach. But she was a reader, and she coached speech and drama in church.This was a little Mormon town, and in our community you did everything. You learned to dance; you learned to play piano. There were 900 people, but it was a town that thought kids should be cultivated. There were three piano teachers, and we did amateur theatricals. In those days you went to church twice on Sunday and twice during the week, practically, in some kind of activity. And everybody had to give talks. There was no professional clergy, so from the time you’re 8 years old you’re probably learning to give little talks.It was a good environment, even though — you know — pretty small. I should say pretty small potatoes — and that’s of course what everybody grew: potatoes. My grandfather, my maternal grandfather, had settled, homesteaded, in that part of Idaho in the late 19th century. So I grew up about 10 miles from where my mother grew up. My grandfather had retired from farming, and divided his farm. So my parents had an 80-acre farm that my dad and brothers ran in the summer. And then my dad taught school in the winter.Q: Would you say you grew up on a farm?A: I grew up in a little town named Sugar City for a sugar beet factory, but the factory closed as the farmers switched from sugar beets to potatoes. It was a little town, probably four or five streets deep from Main Street on each side.The town I grew up in … was destroyed in 1976 when the Teton Dam broke and just washed away the old part of the town. Today Sugar City is kind of a suburb of Rexburg, which has a big Latter-day Saint college now, BYU Idaho. The college began in the late 19th century as Ricks Academy and then became Ricks College. My mother went to Ricks Academy for high school.Q: By fifth grade you had decided you wanted to be a writer.A: We read everything that came our way. But I think the first things I wrote were poems. My father’s sister was a bookkeeper for a bookstore in Salt Lake City, and she sent us books for every occasion. They were just the classic children’s stories — “Little Women” and “Little Men” — and children’s poetry. So I started writing bad verse, you know, doggerel verse. When anybody had a birthday, I would write a poem, and my mother would be so proud, she would share it. As I got into high school, I started sending these to Seventeen magazine and to various church magazines. I would send off stuff, and it would come back, rejected.Q: When did you move from writing verse to writing prose?A: I mainly sent poems to Seventeen. I think they thought: That’s a strange town she’s from — Sugar City. So they asked me to write [an essay] about my town.Q: “A Pail of Cream,” published in December of 1957.A: I think it was a couple of years before they got around to publishing it, and embarrassed me by changing my reference to lamb chops to “a pail of cream.” I guess they thought it improbable that a neighbor would bring a gift of lamb chops on Christmas.Q: In college, how did your sense of being a writer, or a scholar, evolve?A: I started out in journalism. I thought that’s what you did if you wanted to write. And then I just loved my freshman English class, and I thought, “Well, I really like this better.” So I minored in journalism and majored in English.Q: Did you have mentors in college?A: I had fabulous teachers in the English Department but not writing teachers. Nobody ever encouraged me or mentored me, and I hardly ever read a woman writer. I have to be really honest. This was the ’50s. Nobody was encouraging women to go to graduate school, even though I was valedictorian of this large state university. Of course, they probably didn’t encourage me because I was married and pregnant by the time I graduated.And I lost my confidence to write, even though I got straight A’s on everything I wrote. I mean, what did I have to write about? I was just this nice young woman who had a family.Q: After college, with children, you were in the Boston area …A: I had my first child just after I graduated, at Boston Lying-In. I lived in Brighton my first year, and then in Cambridge. My husband was in graduate school. That’s what you did in the ’50s. You followed your husband. He did his Ph.D. at MIT. It was a wonderful kind of life. Wonderful friends. Everybody was doing the same things. Doesn’t matter where you came from, we were all sort of packed into apartments with space heaters.We came here in ’60. My story is largely about being a Mormon woman from that period on. The church experience put me right at the center of a really dynamic community. There were local people and professional people but there were a lot of graduate students and graduate student wives. I did everything. It’s a lay church; I taught all kinds of classes. I learned how to teach by teaching in the church setting. The women’s organization — they were studying literature. I had a degree in English so I taught lessons on literature to other women. I think I wrote some plays — just goofy things for teenagers. I edited a newsletter.This is probably more detail than you need, but it helps me remember. I was part of the Relief Society, which is the women’s organization in the church, and we got the bright idea for fundraising that we would write a guidebook to Boston [in 1966]. I organized it and edited it and did quite a lot of the writing. My friend Bonnie Horne, who was the president of this organization — maybe you’ve read this story, it’s a wonderful story — took the idea to the ward council. These guys who were in graduate school — they were at Harvard Business School — said, “Well, that’s ridiculous. You won’t make any money doing that.” And Bonnie said, “We’ll do it.”So we did it. Somebody gave us some money for a first printing of a thousand copies. We compiled the information, got people to do the drawings and type the text and do titles. We’re talking about creating a physical artifact that we sent away to be printed and bound. We got one copy back as a sample.Bonnie was so excited about this. She said, “I’m calling the women’s page editor of The Boston Globe to see if she’s interested in this.” This woman said, “Bring it down.” The next day we were all meeting at the church for something else and the phone starts ringing. The person in the office came in and said, “Where can people get this book?” She had written a kind of rave review of our book and we didn’t have copies yet. So we sold our thousand copies before they had arrived.They were typed on a typewriter. To us they looked fabulous. You have the printer reduce it 60 percent, and it looks like it’s been typeset. Photo offset was pretty new.So my life, for many years, was organized around these do-it-yourself, crazy projects. We then went on and did a much more elaborate second edition.So pretty much I lived in the Greater Boston area from ’60 to ’70. We did two editions of “A Beginner’s Boston” in the last half of the ’60s. I had four kids, my kids were born in ’60, ’63, ’64, ’69 — and because I had this purposeful assignment, this collaborative project, lots of moral support and other kinds of support, I learned how to use small bits of time. Primarily my kids’ naptime.It was fun. By ’70, the women who worked together on “A Beginner’s Boston” were talking about the women’s movement. We did a book of essays, edited by Claudia Bushman [“Mormon Sisters: Women in Early Utah,” 1976]; we started a newspaper; and I continued to participate even after I moved to New Hampshire. It was an hour and a half away and I came down a couple of times a month. Exponent II is still being published. It’s one of the survivors of those little homemade feminist newspapers that were produced in that period.Q: At the same time you started doing graduate work.A: I was crazy. How did I do all that?I did a master’s at Simmons College. It was a one-year program, and I did it in four years. Wylie Sypher was the graduate director.You just couldn’t go part time to a lot of graduate schools at that time. As a women’s college, Simmons was concerned about women being able to further their education.In the Simmons M.A. you essentially filled in what you hadn’t done in your bachelor’s. Somehow I had missed Chaucer, so I did Chaucer. And I did a course on Bernard Shaw’s plays, and an American studies seminar. So it was pretty miscellaneous. There was no thesis, just eight courses. There were some good teachers there.‘I did not immediately assume that people with children and husbands were subordinate or incapable of having lives of their own.’Q: After getting the degree, in 1971, did you start graduate school in history?A: I hadn’t finished the Simmons degree when my husband got a job teaching at the University of New Hampshire. So we went to New Hampshire. I had one more course to finish the M.A. so I did it at UNH and transferred it.I had a part-time job for a year, teaching English, and it was fun. Don Murray — I don’t know if you ever heard of Don Murray. He wrote for the Globe, and he had a Pulitzer and then became a journalism and English teacher at New Hampshire. … He was a wonderful guy. He was the supervisor. I taught freshman English, and then it became really obvious I didn’t want to do that forever.I thought: I don’t want a Ph.D., I saw my husband go through that, why would I want to do that? Then I saw in the New Hampshire alumni magazine a beautiful chapter from a book just published by a new faculty member named Charles Clark. He was in the history department. I thought: That kind of writing is appealing. I don’t think I want to write critical essays, and I’m not good enough to write poetry, and I’d never really written fiction. I wondered, what is history like? I had never taken a history course. I went to talk to Charlie Clark. I took his course on the literature of early America and loved it.The history department was totally flexible. They admitted me, even as a faculty wife, and even though I had never had a history course. It’s sort of astounding. And so I did [the Ph.D.] in eight years, which is not long at all. I wasn’t teaching, so I was part time. I felt like I had come home. I just loved it.UNH had just hired faculty members specializing in early American history. That’s why I majored in early American history — because the best faculty were in that field. So it was Darrett Rutman and Charlie Clark: both former journalists who really cared about writing. They really encouraged me. They were both really terrific, really wonderful. But of course I couldn’t have done it, wouldn’t have done it, if I hadn’t had my women’s network — still in Boston, a lot of them. It was a very close network of good friends, and we continued to work on feminist stuff. Claudia Bushman got a Ph.D. at BU about the same time I was at UNH.Q: What was that transition like in those days, from literature to history?A: Charlie had an American studies degree, rather than a straight history degree. He had studied with Carl Bridenbaugh at Brown. Darrett was a hard-core social scientist in his approach to history, but a writer. The two of them really emphasized the literary side of history — history as writing — [but] their methodologies were totally different. Charlie was interested in historical literature and narrative, and he did more intellectual history. Darrett did a lot more quantification and social history. I really think working with the two of them made it possible for me to do what I did. I really got good training in social history and lots of nourishing in terms of writing history. It was a nice combination.Q: Was it UNH that showed you the way to the history of ordinary people?A: This was the heyday of the new social history. Darrett was part of that and Charlie was part of that as well. So I was nurtured twice. But I was also nurtured by the women’s studies program at UNH and by my feminist collective, feminist friends that I had in Boston. That’s how I would describe where my work came from.Q: A westerner, a Mormon: You sometimes describe yourself in writing as an outsider. How did that influence your graduate work and your enthusiasms within your study?A: This was all new. These weren’t my ancestors. These weren’t my stories. I didn’t come with a ready-made narrative about this.I was steeped in New England literature. One of my favorite teachers at the University of Utah, Bill Mulder, had a Ph.D. from Harvard in American studies and had studied with Oscar Handlin and others here. So I read all the classics in early American literature. I read John Winthrop and Anne Bradstreet and Benjamin Franklin. I had courses in the 18th century, even though I didn’t have history courses.Q: But reading about early New England must have been like reading French or German — foreign — literature.A: I joke [that] we used to drive through the sagebrush singing “Over the River and Through the Woods.” New England pretty much became [the source] of the national literature. So that part wasn’t hard.I came [to New England] and felt instantly at home. I had read all of Thoreau. As a kid I’d read all of Louisa May Alcott and I memorized Whittier and Bryant in high school. So when I say I’m an outsider, it was genealogically an outsider. I have no New England ancestors. But I had learned a lot about New England.On the other hand, I think [studying] early America was serendipitous. So much of the early work in feminist history was in the 19th and 20th century. People were not working on the 17th and 18th centuries. I worked on the 17th and 18th centuries because I was in an early America history program, not because I decided in the abstract. In fact, when I originally thought of doing graduate work in history I was going to write about Mormon women, my own heritage. When we did “A Midwife’s Tale” [the movie], Laurie Kahn-Leavitt, the producer, one evening kept me up late, trying to search my soul, trying to find out why I cared about Martha Ballard. And I had this sudden flash of insight that it was my grandmother, and the stories of listening to my grandmother, that made me identify so strongly with this woman.Both sets of grandparents had homesteaded. My maternal grandmother died when I was too little to know her. But my paternal grandmother, Grandma Thatcher, had 12 children in a little homestead. It was in a different part of Idaho, in a town named after my great-grandfather: Thatcher, Idaho. I heard stories, frontier stories, from my dad as well as from my grandparents. There was something about being in a period of pioneering that was familiar. Some people think my Mormonism made me comfortable with Puritanism, and that’s true, [but] only in the sense that I had read the Bible. But [it was] radically different theology. These are not the same people.Q: So there were family and emotional ties in your fascination with Martha Ballard.A: Yes — people on the frontier. That wasn’t conscious — absolutely not conscious. But I think, as I look back, I’m comfortable with thinking about people milking cows. My grandmother milked cows in her day.Q: Was your first book from your dissertation?A: Yes, “Good Wives”  was my dissertation.Q: Revised?A: I revised it in six weeks. I had a contract almost immediately, from Knopf, which is unheard of. But I was a little older and I never wrote it as a dissertation; I always wrote it as a book. My mentors taught us to do that.Q: That was very unusual in graduate studies in those days.A: I remember Darrett Rutman saying, “Don’t sit at a typewriter without thinking of publication.” And Charlie had published with Knopf. When I finished, he sent it to [Alfred A. Knopf editor] Jane Garrett. She took it. I think Harvard [University Press] turned it down.Q: Did “Good Wives” represent the evolution of your scholarship?A: “Good Wives” was inspired by my first seminar paper with Darrett Rutman, the study of funeral sermons. That’s where that crazy slogan came from. [“Well-behaved women seldom make history.”] That slogan was discovered by Kay Mills in an article I had written while I was still in graduate school.Q: That was 1976, your first published scholarly article. That now-famous sentiment appeared in the first paragraph.A: The sermons were prescriptive — all about what women should be. So I said, I want to find out what women actually did. So I framed the dissertation as a work of social history.I was writing against a very strong trend in the field of women’s history, and that’s where the slogan becomes important. Anybody who wrote about the 17th century just talked about how oppressed women were, and it was all about witches. And I thought: How am I going to write about witches? There must have been some other people, somewhere — especially when I read the sermons, which were much less misogynist than I expected them to be.Except for Anne Bradstreet’s poetry, and maybe a half-dozen letters, I didn’t have anything in a woman’s hand in my dissertation. It all had to be wormed out of court records or other kinds of material.Q: Did you have to travel far afield for primary documents?A: No. I decided that the only way I was going to finish a dissertation with five kids was to stay close to home. I had to go to archives that I could get back [from] in the course of a day. The farthest I ever went was Boston, to the Massachusetts state archives. I worked a lot in Salem, Mass.; Concord, N.H.; York, Maine. I spent a lot of time in courthouses.Q: Were you a pioneer in doing this book?A: There were a couple of people working on similar things, but there wasn’t much.My colleague Nancy Cott was a real pioneer. She did an anthology while still a graduate student called “Root of Bitterness.” I started teaching women’s history at New Hampshire in 1975 or 1976, just as a summer course — I think the first course taught there in women’s history. [I] called her and said: “Is your book out?” She said: “Not yet. You’ll be fine without it.” I was not there as early as Nancy, but for the early [America] field I’m probably considered a pioneer.Q: Back to the idea of being an outsider, a westerner, a Mormon — and a woman, in the graduate school setting, and a wife. Could you tell me about how that informed your scholarship? The fact that you had a husband, you had five children, you had this role at home.A: That influenced me tremendously, I think, because I did not immediately assume that people with children and husbands were subordinate or incapable of having lives of their own. And I valued — I valued — the things women did. I didn’t always want to do them, but I valued them. And so younger women, who hadn’t had those kinds of experiences: It was a little different for them. I was older, but I was by no means unusual. You look at the pioneers in women’s history, who got their starts in the ’70s and ’80s — the profiles look very similar.Q: Wives, mothers …A: Wives, mothers, a little bit older. And a mixture. People who were successful, like Mary Beth Norton. Mary Beth Norton, Kathryn Sklar. I remember coming through New Hampshire and giving talks when I was just starting out and really being inspired by their existence, you know, regardless of what they said. Mary Beth Norton had studied at Harvard but had not written about women, and she may have been tenured already, but then turned toward women. So some of the pioneers in women’s history had established themselves by writing about “mainstream” topics. Linda Kerber was another example.If I had been at Harvard I never would have written “Good Wives.” If I had been at Harvard I wouldn’t have been a pioneer in women’s history, I’m quite sure of that.Ulrich still hears from readers of “A Midwife’s Tale,” almost 25 years after its publication. The book’s reception reinforced for her the power of history as “an enterprise through which people could derive meaning.”Q: Why do you say that?A: I would have been told: A, I would never get a job. And B, I’d have been ridiculed for that work. Jill Ker Conway had to go off to Toronto to get the power to write about women.Q: Part of this serendipitous landing in Durham, N.H., was that it was the University of New Hampshire, not Harvard. And it was professors who were former journalists, and not …A: Exactly. I’ve said this many times, and I believe it strongly: It was not a disadvantage to me. I had the advantage of disadvantage: a state school, a public school, a late start, and a nontraditional background — being in an English department, rather than a history department. There were so many things that really contributed to [my] doing something a little bit different.Q: Including being a wife and mother.A: And being a wife and mother, and having a lot of responsibility in a lot of directions. Now, I have to be careful about that, because I have to say I had a husband who supported me. Having a husband is a real advantage if you’ve got one who can support you. And so I didn’t have to work.Q: The two of you had five kids, born through the 1960s to 1975. Did it just seem normal to them to have a mother in graduate school?A: Well, they knew they had a crazy mother. Every one of them contributed in some way to this enterprise. My middle child, Nathan, was a sophomore in high school when I was writing my dissertation, and he was fascinated with computers, which were in a big room in the university; there were no microcomputers. He was just dying to get to use the university computers, the mainframe computers — dying so much he was trying to sneak in. His dad got him permission, and ability to go use the computer. And the deal was — he had to type my dissertation.Q: Did he?A: He did. Nathan word-processed my dissertation on the mainframe at UNH, and he did a fabulous job, given the fact that he had barely taken a typing class. He was so thrilled to do it. I would type it on my electric typewriter at home, then I’d revise it by hand, and then I would hand it to him and he would go enter the changes into the mainframe. This brilliant kid. Really.Q: “A Midwife’s Tale” was published in 1990, and won the 1991 Pulitzer. Did the Pulitzer change your life at all — perhaps give you a new sense of self?A: I don’t know that it completely restored my lack of confidence, but it absolutely — dramatically — changed my life in lots and lots of ways. Let me count the ways.One of the most important ways was discovering that ordinary people could be moved by history. This wasn’t just an academic enterprise and it wasn’t a contest to be the first to revise the latest theory. It was an enterprise through which people could derive meaning.I had two emails this week, thanking me [for] “A Midwife’s Tale.” This book is almost 25 years old. People are still finding it and reading. I get these heartfelt letters.Q: In one essay you wrote that history was a primary way of creating meaning.A: “A Midwife’s Tale” helped me find the ways in which people find meaning through the past — not just through their own pasts, but through other people’s lives. It’s a little eerie, actually, the way people connected to Martha Ballard. When I was working on the book I knew I was moved by this story, but I couldn’t imagine anybody else would care.I was so obsessive, really obsessive, in my effort to document, unpack, this cryptic diary. It was quite exciting — also quite daunting. I remember thinking: “This isn’t working. Nobody’s going to be able to stay with me through this narrative.” So it still kind of surprises me that people read [the book] through.Q: Martha was one of your early test cases for the idea that the lives of ordinary people, and the dailiness of their lives, could illuminate American history. Did your fascination with material culture also come out of the book about Martha Ballard?A: Yes. “A Midwife’s Tale” led me to the next project that I did [thanks to] the MacArthur. I felt like the MacArthur rescued me, in a way, from the Pulitzer because it gave me some time. You have a lot of responsibility when people are paying attention to you. It can really be overwhelming. You feel like: They expect me to do miracles, and I’m not sure I can do that.I wanted to do a project that was hard in a different way. I knew I didn’t want to work on a diary. I thought a lot about something I discovered in the course of working on “A Midwife’s Tale” — the incredible investment of time in household production.That had not been the case in “Good Wives.” Men were weaving; women were not. There were few spinning wheels in people’s houses. In earlier periods there was less household production than there was by the time of the American Revolution. So I wanted to know when that happened; whether this was just a phenomenon of Maine [and] how textile production changed. So I did a pretty massive study of household inventories.People told me I was nuts. I gave a paper in Madrid where experts on textiles didn’t believe my numbers. They didn’t understand plebian household production. It didn’t look like commercial production in Europe or Japan or wherever they were studying. I was looking at this strange phenomenon of this odd New England textile household production system.That’s what led me to the material culture. I met a woman from the Royal Ontario Museum in Toronto who was a weaver and a textile curator. I had a little fellowship there, and I went up there and started studying household fabrics.I had already started that project pretty seriously when Laurie Kahn-Leavitt came calling, wanting to do the PBS documentary on “A Midwife’s Tale.” So working on the film closely with Laurie reinforced my interest in material and visual history.Q: Why study artifacts and the material culture of a time?A: It was an extension of my enterprise to discover people who didn’t leave a lot of written documents. Martha Ballard left a terse diary [of 27 years], and it was wonderful. But most people didn’t. But they left an awful lot of stuff behind.I counted threads on an awful lot of sheets, just to learn what a homemade blanket looked like versus what a commercially made blanket looked like. “The Age of Homespun” is probably my least popular book, but it’s a book that a lot of people who are really into material culture enjoy. It’s [my husband’s] least favorite book because it’s not as much of a story. It’s episodic; it’s fragmented. But it was a really daunting research project.I always was interested in the material fabric of life. I volunteered on a dig at Strawbery Banke in New Hampshire when I was working on “Good Wives.” I’ve always liked museums. It was never central, but it has become central, especially to a lot of my teaching, and to a lot of my writing.Q: Something central also, perhaps, is the world of early Mormon feminists you are writing about now. How did this early brand of feminism influence your own life?A: I did not grow up with any consciousness whatsoever of early Mormon feminism. I grew up with the knowledge of strong women, particularly pioneers: You know, 12 children, log cabin, whatever. I learned about 19th-century Mormon women’s feminism when we were working on some of our projects in Boston in the early ’70s and discovered in Widener Library a complete bound set of “The Woman’s Exponent,” which was published from 1872 to 1912. None of us knew that such a thing had existed. And it was pretty remarkable.That changed my life and the lives of a lot of other people. We suddenly saw a different kind of pioneering than [the stories of] long-suffering, noble [women] crossing the plains, giving birth in a log cabin. We saw these women voting and going to medical school.The book I’m working on now, “A House Full of Females,” originated in my desire to share that story more broadly. The general literature has talked about polygamy, but most people don’t know much about 19th-century Mormonism at all. And that is my heritage. My ancestors were there. I’ve been wary about writing things that are too close to me; I think it’s sometimes hard to do. But I thought, “I’m 75 years old. Why not? If I’m going to do it, I’ve got to do it now.”As I began researching this book I realized I didn’t know that much about that world either. It was just fascinating. Something seemed familiar, particularly the terms used — the general vocabulary, its structure. But I did not understand that world. So it was kind of exciting to get into this and rediscover it. And it’s brought me back to diaries. I’m working with diaries. I’m working with a whole bunch of diaries.Q: And are you traveling to find them?A: Well, the lovely thing in the however many years since I first thought about this Mormon history, there’s been a real revolution in the archives. There are beautiful print editions. Utah State University Press has had a series that’s been going on for 20, 30 years of primary works in Mormon history. There are probably eight or nine of these in a series [and] other presses doing similar things.I have been spending a lot of time in Utah working with originals. I like working with original documents, even if I have a modern edition. The church history library in Salt Lake, where lots of these materials are kept, is a brand-new building with amazing technical proficiency. So I can find something in the catalog online that I know I need. It’s an astounding archive.Q: How are you using what you find?A: I’m writing a narrative based on the diaries … from about 1835 to 1857.Q: You’re a pioneer again.A: The book is about men and women. “House Full of Females” refers to women both in voluntary organizations and in polygamous families.Q: You have a male diarist in there as well?A: I have several.Q: Nobody’s done this before.A: Lots of people have written about Mormonism from 1830 to 1875. But nobody’s tried to understand the relationship between female activism and the marriage system. Everybody assumes there is a relationship — that it made women more independent, that it increased solidarity, since they outnumbered the patriarch. People all speculate about that. But I don’t know anybody who has sat down and tried to put it together in a detailed narrative.Q: In a way, you’ve come in a circle.A: I have.Q: You’re going back west. Back home. Back to stories your grandparents might have hinted at.A: Right. I thought I would try to sneak them in, you know. But darn, they didn’t write. But they’re there, you know.Q: You’re also circling back to 1970 and that circle of friends you had, when you discovered this aspect of Mormon life.A: Yeah. And they’re a group of people that is still important in my life.Q: I think we’ve covered some ground.A: I think we’ve covered a lot of ground. I’ve got a lot of years.Interview was edited for clarity and length.
Playing for Peace continued its efforts to promote peace in South Sudan at the second annual basketball tournament and Peace & Pep Rally held before the men’s basketball season opener against Mississippi Valley State on Saturday. The rally, which emphasized the continued need for assistance in Sudan, took place following two basketball tournaments — a three-on-three student tournament and a youth tournament for South Bend community members. Last year’s rally and tournament were the opening events of the Playing for Peace initiative. Social concerns chair, junior Ellen Carroll, said this year’s rally shows Notre Dame’s continued support of the people of Sudan. “Last year our Playing for Peace tournament and our Stand with Sudan rally was the largest advocacy event for a peaceful referendum in Sudan of any school in America,” she said. “This year we gather together again to show we’re staying with the people of Sudan.” The rally occurred at a critical time for the country of Sudan, Carroll said. United States senators will debate cutting the international aid budget Monday and Tuesday, a move that could greatly affect South Sudan. Many students signed a petition to President Obama, asking him to continue to support the Sudanese people as they rebuild their nation. Although they could not be present due to the game that followed the rally, men’s basketball players Tim Abromaitis and Joey Brooks opened the rally with a prayer. “Join our voices with their voices and our hearts with their hearts in a plea for peace,” Abromaitis and Brooks said in unison. During the rally, Carroll played a video update from Catholic Relief Services on the situation in Sudan. In the video, Bishop Eduardo Hiiboro Kussala of the Diocese of Tombura-Yambio in South Sudan described the precarious state of the country. “We do not want a return to war,” Kussala said. “We are at a fragile first stage. We need your prayers, we need your voice, not only before God but before your government officials.” Ring Agwick, a University employee who emigrated from South Sudan to South Bend, also spoke to students and thanked them for their continued support. Agwick said the Sudanese people would be touched to witness a crowd speaking out on their behalf. “If not for you guys and your country, there wouldn’t be no country called South Sudan today,” he said. “We’re really fortunate for what you have been doing.” Kevin Dugan, manager of youth and community programs for the athletic department, said the tournament and rally were intended as a follow-up to last year’s Playing for Peace events. Dugan said the purpose of the day was to update the students on recent Playing for Peace events, such as Dugan’s summer trip to Sudan, and also to call attention to the current situation in the country. “South Sudan is now a free and independent country but there’s a tremendous amount of violence taking place along the borders,” he said. “We want to make everyone aware that we need to stay with Sudan.” The men’s lacrosse team, who helped spearhead the initial Playing for Peace tournament and rally, has continued to be involved with this year’s events. Freshman lacrosse player John Scioscia said the initiative is a great way for the entire campus, as well as the South Bend community, to develop connections. “I think it raises great awareness through a sport,” he said. “Bringing people together to play a sport raises teamwork. Everyone works together and it supports great ideas that are the exact opposite of war.” Carroll said Playing for Peace has already begun planning events for the spring, including a lacrosse tournament and a basketball tournament for community members that will take place at the Martin Luther King Center in South Bend. “The tagline this year is ‘From South Bend to South Sudan’ so that’s the goal, to keep holding events that help both Sudan and our community,” she said.
Georgia cotton farmers are successfully managing the state’s most problematic weed, glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth, by using many methods, including hand-pulling the weed out of their fields. But tackling the weed is drastically cutting into their already limited profits, according to University of Georgia weed scientist Stanley Culpepper.“When you ask most of our growers if they’re doing OK in regard to managing Palmer amaranth, the answer is, ‘Absolutely not.’ But it’s because of the cost of management, not the methods of management,” said Culpepper, a researcher with the UGA College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences. “Overall, we’re doing well except for economics. When you’ve got cotton that’s selling around 60 cents per pound, and the herbicide program or weed management program is costing growers an average of between $60 to $80 per acre, it’s problematic.”Cotton prices have been slow to increase for almost two years. With the added expense of managing Palmer amaranth, it’s difficult for farmers to make a successful profit with their cotton crop.“Our management program is working, but it can be a costly expense for our farmers. The bottom line is that cotton prices need to improve soon so expenses don’t prove too much to overcome,” Culpepper said.Glyphosate resistance was first confirmed in Palmer amaranth in Georgia in 2004. The most destructive adversary to cotton production in Georgia, Palmer amaranth can reproduce at alarmingly high rates. A female plant can produce approximately 400,000 seeds in dryland production. In irrigated fields, seed production can exceed 750,000 per female plant.While herbicide systems continue to be Georgia growers’ most valuable short-term weapon, their best ally in achieving long-term sustainability is hand-weeding and moving toward sound conservation tillage systems, said Culpepper. In response to a recent survey issued by UGA Cooperative Extension, 88 percent of Georgia cotton growers reported pulling weeds by hand. While hand-weeding is an important management option for Palmer amaranth, it’s even more critical for long-term sustainability, Culpepper said. “Palmer amaranth is a big picture problem, but the bigger picture is herbicide resistance. The fact is that we have no new chemistries and we’re losing chemistries rapidly to both resistance and regulatory issues,” he said.Hand-weeding is one of the most effective ways to avoid management failure due to chemical resistance, Culpepper added. “If a weed escapes one of those effective chemistries, but we are out there hand-weeding and getting it out of the field so it doesn’t produce any seed, that serves as a win,” Culpepper said.Culpepper and fellow UGA scientists have spent more than a decade studying how an untreated weed can easily overtake a field. Culpepper believes Georgia farmers should be commended for the difference they have made over the past decade dealing with Palmer amaranth.“I see no other grower group in the cotton belt that is even close to the level of aggression and management of our growers,” he said. “Our growers are the most knowledgeable on the planet. They’re making progress where others continue to struggle. Grower knowledge is phenomenal. Grower management is phenomenal.” For more information about the cotton crop in Georgia, see ugacotton.com.
15SHARESShareShareSharePrintMailGooglePinterestDiggRedditStumbleuponDeliciousBufferTumblr,John Pettit John Pettit is the Managing Editor for CUInsight.com. John manages the content on the site, including current news, editorial, press releases, jobs and events. He keeps the credit union … Web: www.cuinsight.com Details Make sure they know it’s a big dealSometimes performance is just an effort problem. Make it clear that it takes an effort to guarantee a strong performance. Hopefully this will be the push they need to excel.Provide motivationWhen you’re making a plan of attack, set goals and reward your employees for their excellent work. If you give employees a reason to over perform, they’ll often keep up the good work. If they feel undervalued or stuck, their performance will stall and you’ll have a problem on your hands.Stay in touchKeep a pulse on things. After you make a plan, make sure you don’t lose touch of what’s going on. Keep an eye on things and advise when necessary. You can monitor and still provide your team the opportunity to create and innovate.Do what you’ve got to doAt the end of the day, business is about results, and underperforming doesn’t often provide favorable ones. If it’s time to fire an underperforming employee, then it has to be done. It’s never pleasant to let someone go, but it’s going to be for the best.
Self-serve payment technology was developed and continues to evolve as a way to bring convenience and efficiency to consumers, businesses, and financial institutions. From a business standpoint, giving consumers and account holders a way to seamlessly make their loan payments, transfer funds across accounts, pay bills, and send money from peer to peer provides value and can create operational efficiencies.For some financial institutions, however, increasing account holder adoption of proprietary payment systems can be a challenge. Much like moving a banking relationship from one institution to another, consumers can find it tedious and time consuming to transition their bill pay and peer-to-peer payment activity from existing websites and apps. With a concerted and strategic marketing effort, your financial institution can increase self-serve payment adoption across your account holder population. Here are a few ways to notify account holders that they have convenient payment options available to fit their busy schedules.Promote Specific FeaturesIt’s important to educate your account holders on the aspects of your payments tool that are unique. For example, if you have a single sign-on feature, express pay, or guest payments, make sure your borrowers and account holders know how convenient and easy your payments tool can make their lives. continue reading » ShareShareSharePrintMailGooglePinterestDiggRedditStumbleuponDeliciousBufferTumblr
ShareShareSharePrintMailGooglePinterestDiggRedditStumbleuponDeliciousBufferTumblr The NCUA in August issued one prohibition notice, prohibiting an individual previously associated with credit unions from any future participation in the affairs of a federally-insured financial institution.Violation of a prohibition order is a felony offense punishable by imprisonment and a fine of up to $1 million. Details from last month’s prohibition order follow:Bethann Kraenzlein, a former employee of Northland Area Federal Credit Union in Oscoda, Mich., was sentenced on a charge of embezzlement. continue reading » NCUA headquarters
Gov. Wolf’s Green Government Initiatives Boost Energy Efficiency by 3 Percent in First Year SHARE Email Facebook Twitter Efficiency, Energy, Environment, Press Release On the first anniversary of signing an executive order establishing the first statewide goal to reduce carbon pollution, Governor Tom Wolf announced a 3 percent reduction in state government electricity, natural gas and steam use for commonwealth facilities. That executive order also established the interagency GreenGov Council, which is analyzing state agency energy and sustainability strategies.“Pennsylvania is taking action to reduce our carbon footprint and serve as a leader in green policies to address climate change,” said Governor Wolf. “The first year has proven that our ambitious goals are achievable to improve our energy efficiency, protect the environment and generate cost-savings.”The executive order, signed Jan. 8, 2019, set a goal of a 26 percent reduction in net greenhouse gas emissions by 2025 and an 80 percent reduction by 2050, from 2005 levels.A key contributor to the initial 3 percent reduction is investments through the state’s Guaranteed Energy Savings Act or GESA program, which allows public entities to fund energy efficiency projects with the savings from reduced energy costs. The GESA program expanded to 13 projects investing over $124 million in energy efficiency upgrades, saving $6.8 million each year.The Wolf administration also began an initiative to gather and analyze data from the commonwealth’s 8,000 electricity and natural gas meters. The data will help identify further facility energy reductions and cost-saving project opportunities through the GESA program and prioritize capital improvement projects.In 2019, the commonwealth purchased 308,978 MWhs of certified Renewable Energy Credits, achieving the executive order’s goal to offset the commonwealth’s electricity usage total by 40 percent. The purchase was made possible by utilizing a small percentage, less than 10 percent, of the favorable electricity contracts resulting in savings of $2.8 million in 2019. Pennsylvania is currently ranked #35 on the EPA’s Green Power Partnership National Top 100.“State government has a responsibility to take a leadership role in implementing best practices to reduce energy consumption and improve energy efficiency,” said Governor Wolf. “I commend the Council and state agencies for breaking from the status quo and exploring new opportunities to expand our green efforts that will reduce costs and protect the environment.”The GreenGov Council is co-chaired by the departments of Conservation and Natural Resources, Environmental Protection, and General Services. The Council is developing and implementing a comprehensive strategy to significantly scale up state agencies’ energy efficiency and use of renewable energy to meet ambitious targets over the next five years.The council developed the GreenGov Agency Certification Checklist, a first-of-its-kind tool for agencies to annually evaluate their progress. More than 30 state agencies are participating to improve their green practices.The GreenGov Council is also working toward a goal of 990 electric or hybrid plug-in vehicles to the state fleet by 2025. The commonwealth is in discussion with auto manufacturers and infrastructure vendors to provide charging stations.Action is also being taken to meet the executive order’s high-performance design criteria into its facility design and construction practices. To date, 11 state-owned buildings, along with one build-to-suit leased building, are being designed or in construction to meet or exceed the high-performance building standards.The GreenGov Council is inviting the public to learn more about state government’s efforts to boost green and sustainable practices and give feedback on Friday, January 31, 1:00 PM to 3:00 PM at the Pennsylvania Emergency Management Agency, 310 Elmerton Ave., Harrisburg. For more information on the meeting or to RSVP, email [email protected] or call 717-787-4987. January 09, 2020
The pool was a drawcard for the Orths.Mr Orth said the location of the property and its pool was a drawcard when they initially bought the home with the intention of renovating it.“I could see the potential,” Mr Orth said.“We added an extra bedroom and bathroom, painted inside and out, put in a new kitchen and renovated the second bathroom.” More from newsParks and wildlife the new lust-haves post coronavirus15 hours agoNoosa’s best beachfront penthouse is about to hit the market15 hours agoWalls were ripped out and replaced, as was wiring.He said they also undertook tasks such as replacing the walls with gyprock, polishing timber floors and replacing wiring.“We really wanted something that wouldn’t age, something that would always look nice and fresh and bright,” he said. A free standing tub was a must for Mrs Orth.Mr Orth said a freestanding bathtub in the ensuite was a must for his wife, and said the completely white kitchen was strategic.“With a white kitchen, you can bring other colours in through your appliances,” he said. The house at 40 Verbena St, Mount Gravatt, is for sale.THE interior of this Mount Gravatt home is barely recognisable after an intensive makeover.Sam and Bianca Orth bought the 40 Verbena St house about 18 months ago, with the intention of making it their family home.Due to unforeseen circumstances, they need to relocate, which means someone else can now have the opportunity to live in their freshly renovated home. The couple strategically decided on an all-white kitchen.The master bedroom was Mr Orth’s favourite room.“When the electric shutters are open, you get a view of the pool and the forest, but when it’s dark you could sleep for three days.“It also has its own sliding door onto the deck.”The couple loved the location, with the property backing onto Mount Gravatt Outlook Reserve.“Every weekend we would walk out the back gate and walk up to the top of the Mount Gravatt lookout. It’s also very close to the M1, shops and schools.”Video Player is loading.Play VideoPlayNext playlist itemMuteCurrent Time 0:00/Duration 0:37Loaded: 0%Stream Type LIVESeek to live, currently playing liveLIVERemaining Time -0:37 Playback Rate1xChaptersChaptersDescriptionsdescriptions off, selectedCaptionscaptions settings, opens captions settings dialogcaptions off, selectedQuality Levels720p720pHD432p432p270p270p180p180pAutoA, selectedAudio Tracken (Main), selectedFullscreenThis is a modal window.Beginning of dialog window. Escape will cancel and close the window.TextColorWhiteBlackRedGreenBlueYellowMagentaCyanTransparencyOpaqueSemi-TransparentBackgroundColorBlackWhiteRedGreenBlueYellowMagentaCyanTransparencyOpaqueSemi-TransparentTransparentWindowColorBlackWhiteRedGreenBlueYellowMagentaCyanTransparencyTransparentSemi-TransparentOpaqueFont Size50%75%100%125%150%175%200%300%400%Text Edge StyleNoneRaisedDepressedUniformDropshadowFont FamilyProportional Sans-SerifMonospace Sans-SerifProportional SerifMonospace SerifCasualScriptSmall CapsReset restore all settings to the default valuesDoneClose Modal DialogEnd of dialog window.This is a modal window. This modal can be closed by pressing the Escape key or activating the close button.Close Modal DialogThis is a modal window. This modal can be closed by pressing the Escape key or activating the close button.PlayMuteCurrent Time 0:00/Duration 0:00Loaded: 0%Stream Type LIVESeek to live, currently playing liveLIVERemaining Time -0:00 Playback Rate1xFullscreenWhy moving to a ‘sister suburb’ can save you money00:37