A decade has yielded much progress in understanding polar disturbance and community recovery—mainly through quantifying ice scour rates, other disturbance levels, larval abundance and diversity, colonization rates and response of benthos to predicted climate change. The continental shelf around Antarctica is clearly subject to massive disturbance, but remarkably across so many scales. In summer, millions of icebergs from sizes smaller than cars to larger than countries ground out and gouge the sea floor and crush the benthic communities there, while the highest wind speeds create the highest waves to pound the coast. In winter, the calm associated with the sea surface freezing creates the clearest marine water in the world. But in winter, an ice foot encases coastal life and anchor ice rips benthos from the sea floor. Over tens and hundreds of thousands of years, glaciations have done the same on continental scales—ice sheets have bulldozed the seabed and the zoobenthos to edge of shelves. We detail and rank modern disturbance levels (from most to least): ice; asteroid impacts; sediment instability; wind/wave action; pollution; UV irradiation; volcanism; trawling; non-indigenous species; freshwater inundation; and temperature stress. Benthic organisms have had to recolonize local scourings and continental shelves repeatedly, yet a decade of studies have demonstrated that they have (compared with lower latitudes) slow tempos of reproduction, colonization and growth. Despite massive disturbance levels and slow recolonization potential, the Antarctic shelf has a much richer fauna than would be expected for its area. Now, West Antarctica is among the fastest warming regions and its organisms face new rapid changes. In the next century, temperature stress and non-indigenous species will drastically rise to become dominant disturbances to the Antarctic life. Here, we describe the potential for benthic organisms to respond to disturbance, focusing particularly on what we know now that we did not a decade ago.
Published on February 2, 2020 at 10:16 pm Contact Thomas: [email protected] | @ThomasShults5 Facebook Twitter Google+ During warmups, freshmen Polina Kozyreva and Kim Hansen sang Whitney Houston’s “I Wanna Dance with Somebody” as they grabbed granola bars from their tennis bags and headed towards their respective courts.Before Syracuse’s (4-0) match against previously undefeated Boston University (3-1), the freshmen seemed relaxed. On court three, senior Guzal Yusupova threw her head back in exasperation after repeatedly missing warm up shots. On a day when the team leaders struggled, the freshmen stepped up. Yusupova lost in singles 6-1, 6-3, but Hansen, Kozyreva and Zeynep Erman all won their matches. The freshmen stayed perfect in singles play on the season. In doubles, which has been a challenge for the freshmen so far, a partner switch led to two easy victories.“I think they show a lot of passion and fight and perseverance,” head coach Younes Limam said of the freshmen after SU’s 6-1 win. “They put us on the scoreboard pretty quickly and that’s really important to a match.”The new partnership of Kozyreva, a first-year player from Russia, and sophomore Sonya Treshcheva defeated the Terriers, 6-3, after falling behind early. The new duo took some time to adjust. BU hit a ball down the middle of the court with neither player making a move. After a ball fell and bounced towards the wall, the pair stood at the net staring at each other, and quickly regrouped.First, Kozyreva hit a second serve down the midline, an ace that cut BU’s lead to 2-1. The SU pair went on to win four straight games before finishing their opponents off and sealing the doubles point.AdvertisementThis is placeholder textKozyreva said it’s easier to play with Treshcheva because they are both Russian, and can speak their native language on the court. With her former partner, Erman, a fellow freshmen from Turkey, Kozyreva struggled because she has to think of how to translate what she wants to say, she said.While the senior doubles team of Miranda Ramirez and Yusupova struggled, the younger players shined. Before Kozyreva and Treshcheva won 6-3, Hansen and Erman defeated their opponents 6-1.Ramirez and Yusupova eventually won their doubles match 7-5. But their freshmen teammates winning early took pressure off of Ramirez and Yusupova to win the doubles point.“Instead of being like, ‘Oh my gosh, we have to win this match in order to get the point,’” Ramirez said. “It’s okay, we’re good.”After securing the doubles point, Kozyreva defeated Lily Burchell of BU 6-1 in the first set. Too often, Burchell was forced to run sideline to sideline chasing shots as Kozyreva moved her around the court.“She’s better than I am,” Burchell said to her teammates after losing the first set.Before Burchell could take a sip out of her bottle, Kozyreva was already walking to her side of the court. By the time Burchell moved to stand up from the bench, Kozyreva was in form to serve.“My way of playing tennis, I don’t like sitting and waiting,” said Kozyreva. “I just like to play fast.”Eventually, Kozyreva won 6-1, 6-2, but not before fellow freshmen Erman defeated Boston University’s Katya Martens, 6-0, 6-2. Seconds later, the third freshman, Hansen, won her match 6-3, 6-0 to clinch victory for the Orange.“All three of them (the freshmen) just completely take care of business,” said assistant coach Jennifer Meredith. “They’re just getting better every day.” Comments