Sep 23, 2005 (CIDRAP News) – Researchers who reviewed 64 studies report that influenza vaccination is only modestly beneficial for elderly people overall, with nursing home residents benefiting more than people living on their own.”Our findings show that, according to reliable evidence, the effectiveness of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccines in elderly individuals is modest, irrespective of setting, outcome, population, and study design,” says the report by Tom Jefferson and four colleagues, of the Cochrane Vaccines Field, based in Alessandria, Italy. The study was published online yesterday by The Lancet.The researchers found that flu vaccines, when well matched to circulating flu strains, reduced the risk of hospitalization for flu or pneumonia by 45% for elderly (65 or older) nursing home residents. For people living at home, flu vaccines were 26% effective in preventing hospitalization for flu or pneumonia. However, vaccination didn’t significantly lower the risk of laboratory-confirmed influenza in either group.The team searched five databases for studies of the effectiveness of flu vaccine in preventing influenza, flu-like illnesses, and related hospital admissions, complications, and death. They found 64 studies from the past four decades, including five randomized trials, 49 cohort studies, and 10 case-control studies, that met their criteria.For elderly residents of nursing homes who received vaccines well matched to circulating flu strains, the vaccines yielded risk reductions of 23% for flu-like illness, 46% for pneumonia, 45% for hospitalization for flu or pneumonia, 42% for death from flu or pneumonia, and 60% for death from any cause. However, vaccination yielded no significant benefit when the match with circulating flu strains was poor or unknown.The benefits were smaller for elderly people living in the community, according to the authors’ analysis of 20 cohort studies. Vaccines didn’t significantly reduce the participants’ risk for flu, flu-like illness, or pneumonia. With well-matched vaccines, risk reductions were 26% for hospitalization for flu or pneumonia and 42% for all-cause mortality. Vaccines did not reduce the risk of hospitalization for heart disease or the risk of death from respiratory disease.However, vaccination looked somewhat more beneficial for community dwellers when the authors adjusted for confounding variables, including sex, age, smoking, and other illnesses. In that analysis, vaccines reduced the risk of all-cause mortality by 47% and lowered the risk of hospitalization by 24% for heart disease and 22% for respiratory diseases.The authors write that no firm conclusions could be drawn from the five randomized controlled trials they analyzed. However, in analyzing the two trials that had “adequate” randomization and blinding, they found that vaccines were 43% effective in preventing flu-like illness and 58% effective against flu in community-dwelling older peopleThe study’s main findings show somewhat smaller benefits than those cited by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Information on the CDC Web site says that for older people in nursing homes, flu immunization can be 50% to 60% effective in preventing flu-related hospitalization or pneumonia and 80% effective in preventing flu-related death. Also, the CDC says that community dwelling older people who get flu shots can lower their risk of hospitalization for pneumonia or flu by 30% to 70%.In response to the new study, the CDC issued a statement today emphasizing that vaccination remains the best way to protect older people from flu and its complications. The agency acknowledged that flu vaccines are not 100% effective and that older people and those with chronic diseases may develop less immunity than healthy young adults.The CDC said the finding that flu vaccination is more effective for nursing-home residents than for community-dwelling older people “is unexpected and not consistent with other data, including information on immune response to vaccination.”The study authors write that on the basis of their findings, “We believe efforts should be concentrated on achieving high vaccination coverage in long-term care facilities coupled with a systematic assessment of the effect of such a policy. One possible way to improve this strategy might involve the vaccination of carers [caregivers] in an effort to reduce transmission.”The federal government took steps in that direction last month, announcing that nursing homes that serve Medicare recipients would be required to offer flu shots to residents. The government also wants to increase vaccination coverage for nursing home staff members, but there are no plans to require vaccination for them.The new report was published little more than a week after the CDC urged older people and others in high-risk groups to get their flu shots soon. The agency has recommended that flu shots be reserved for the high-risk groups until Oct 24.Jefferson T, Rivetti D, Rivetti A, et al. Efficacy and effectiveness of influenza vaccines in elderly people: a systematic review. Lancet 2005;Sep 22 (early online pubication)See also:CDC information on efficacy and effectiveness of flu vaccinehttp://www.cdc.gov/flu/professionals/vaccination/efficacy.htm
Published on January 4, 2016 at 12:00 am Contact Jesse: email@example.com | @dougherty_jesse In April, when time officially catches up with one of the best scorers in NBA history, just about everyone in professional basketball will have their “Kobe Bryant story.”It could be playing alongside Bryant in his final season with the Los Angeles Lakers. It could be facing or teaming up with him in what will be, come February, his 18th NBA All-Star game. It could be as small as guarding him on one possession as Bryant’s farewell tour snakes through North America.Mike Hopkins, who has one game left as Syracuse’s interim head coach and will take over the program in 2018, crossed paths with Bryant while working as a court coach for USA basketball. In the summer of 2012, while Bryant, Hopkins and Team USA were preparing for the Olympics in London, the two engaged in a post-practice game of one-on-one. If the team wasn’t meeting with U.S. military members later that evening, a coach who witnessed the game joked that it would have never ended.“It was arguably one of my greatest moments ever in basketball,” Hopkins said, and here is how he recounted it in an October interview.***AdvertisementThis is placeholder textWhile Team USA was preparing for the 2010 FIBA World Championship, Hopkins developed a workout routine with star Oklahoma City Thunder forward Kevin Durant.Durant moved to five different spots on the floor to work on one-on-one moves. Hopkins defended him aggressively, talked trash and playfully smacked the ball out of Durant’s hands in between plays. After a while, Hopkins and Durant did this before and after every practice and that continued during preparation for the Summer Olympics in 2012.“Hop come on, let’s go!” Hopkins remembers Durant saying to him after practice one day, and Durant and LeBron James went to the far basket at George Washington University’s gym.While they went through the five spots, with Hopkins closely defending two of the world’s best players, Bryant and Thunder guard Russell Westbrook took jump shots on the main court. Hopkins noticed Bryant watching him drill Durant and James. When they finished up, Hopkins walked across the court to say hello to current Golden State Warriors forward Andre Iguodala.Then he got a tap on the shoulder. He turned to see Bryant standing with a ball in his hand. The two had never met.“Yo you want to do some of that mid-post stuff you were doing down there with those guys?” Bryant asked him, and Hopkins stumbled on his words before saying yes.Because he didn’t know Bryant, Hopkins was hesitant to play him too hard. They set up on the elbow and Hopkins handed him the ball. Bryant took a hard jab step before hitting his patented fadeaway jump shot. Hopkins went to get the ball out of the net then handed it to him again.But Bryant had watched how hard Hopkins defended Durant and James and wasn’t satisfied.“Are you going to play defense?” Hopkins remembers Bryant asking him.“You want me to play defense?” Hopkins asked back.“Oh I want you to play defense,” Bryant answered, smirking at Hopkins.And off they went. Hopkins started hitting Bryant’s arms and pushing him away from the rim. When he went for a block and tipped Bryant’s shot he started trash talking. Hopkins was only playing defense and they moved to every spot on the floor, both drenched in sweat, as Bryant surgically created space and poured jumper after jumper through the hoop.The rest of the team was out of the gym. The media wanted to talk to Bryant but he told them to wait. Team USA and Duke head coach Mike Krzyzewski wanted to introduce Bryant to his grandchildren but he told them to wait, too.Finally, after an hour or so passed, Hopkins and Bryant had to stop because Team USA was meeting with U.S. military personnel. Both were reluctant to leave the court. Hopkins shyly asked Bryant if he could take a picture with his son Griffin, and Bryant smiled for Hopkins’ iPhone camera before hitting the showers and calling it a day.A video was taken of the game by Fairport (New York) High School head coach Scott Fitch, but it hasn’t been recovered from a cracked iPad. Three years later, Hopkins wants to see the video but he can also replay it all in his head. The way Bryant brought a different, detailed approach to each spot. The way his feet moved like a ballerina’s. The way he tirelessly competed in an empty college gym while only a few people were watching.It’s a Kobe Bryant story Hopkins will never forget.“There was no other place on the planet Kobe would have liked to have been at that moment,” Hopkins said. “You see what the best have, and it was just awesome how much fun it was for him to play the game. I got to be a part of that.” Comments Facebook Twitter Google+
Marcus Olsson puts Derby ahead 1 Marcus Olsson’s first goal for Derby was enough to secure a 1-0 victory over local rivals Nottingham Forest at the iPro Stadium and keep their promotion challenge on track.A game of few chances appeared to be heading for stalemate in front of a sell-out crowd of 33,000 until Tom Ince played Olsson in to settle the A52 derby 11 minutes from time.The game was full of sub-plots before the kick-off with Derby’s new football advisor Harry Redknapp watching from the directors’ box while former Rams midfielder Paul Williams was up against his ex-team mate Darren Wassall after replacing Dougie Freedman as Forest boss.The Rams won just their fourth match in their last ten. A half-time team talk by the football advisor and new Jordan boss seemingly helped as Swedish left-back Olsson went on to score the game’s only goal after 79 minutes. The ball broke to Ince just outside the area and he played Olsson in to place a low shot inside the left post.Forest have now lost six of their last eight Championship fixtures.