Sep 23, 2005 (CIDRAP News) – Researchers who reviewed 64 studies report that influenza vaccination is only modestly beneficial for elderly people overall, with nursing home residents benefiting more than people living on their own.”Our findings show that, according to reliable evidence, the effectiveness of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccines in elderly individuals is modest, irrespective of setting, outcome, population, and study design,” says the report by Tom Jefferson and four colleagues, of the Cochrane Vaccines Field, based in Alessandria, Italy. The study was published online yesterday by The Lancet.The researchers found that flu vaccines, when well matched to circulating flu strains, reduced the risk of hospitalization for flu or pneumonia by 45% for elderly (65 or older) nursing home residents. For people living at home, flu vaccines were 26% effective in preventing hospitalization for flu or pneumonia. However, vaccination didn’t significantly lower the risk of laboratory-confirmed influenza in either group.The team searched five databases for studies of the effectiveness of flu vaccine in preventing influenza, flu-like illnesses, and related hospital admissions, complications, and death. They found 64 studies from the past four decades, including five randomized trials, 49 cohort studies, and 10 case-control studies, that met their criteria.For elderly residents of nursing homes who received vaccines well matched to circulating flu strains, the vaccines yielded risk reductions of 23% for flu-like illness, 46% for pneumonia, 45% for hospitalization for flu or pneumonia, 42% for death from flu or pneumonia, and 60% for death from any cause. However, vaccination yielded no significant benefit when the match with circulating flu strains was poor or unknown.The benefits were smaller for elderly people living in the community, according to the authors’ analysis of 20 cohort studies. Vaccines didn’t significantly reduce the participants’ risk for flu, flu-like illness, or pneumonia. With well-matched vaccines, risk reductions were 26% for hospitalization for flu or pneumonia and 42% for all-cause mortality. Vaccines did not reduce the risk of hospitalization for heart disease or the risk of death from respiratory disease.However, vaccination looked somewhat more beneficial for community dwellers when the authors adjusted for confounding variables, including sex, age, smoking, and other illnesses. In that analysis, vaccines reduced the risk of all-cause mortality by 47% and lowered the risk of hospitalization by 24% for heart disease and 22% for respiratory diseases.The authors write that no firm conclusions could be drawn from the five randomized controlled trials they analyzed. However, in analyzing the two trials that had “adequate” randomization and blinding, they found that vaccines were 43% effective in preventing flu-like illness and 58% effective against flu in community-dwelling older peopleThe study’s main findings show somewhat smaller benefits than those cited by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Information on the CDC Web site says that for older people in nursing homes, flu immunization can be 50% to 60% effective in preventing flu-related hospitalization or pneumonia and 80% effective in preventing flu-related death. Also, the CDC says that community dwelling older people who get flu shots can lower their risk of hospitalization for pneumonia or flu by 30% to 70%.In response to the new study, the CDC issued a statement today emphasizing that vaccination remains the best way to protect older people from flu and its complications. The agency acknowledged that flu vaccines are not 100% effective and that older people and those with chronic diseases may develop less immunity than healthy young adults.The CDC said the finding that flu vaccination is more effective for nursing-home residents than for community-dwelling older people “is unexpected and not consistent with other data, including information on immune response to vaccination.”The study authors write that on the basis of their findings, “We believe efforts should be concentrated on achieving high vaccination coverage in long-term care facilities coupled with a systematic assessment of the effect of such a policy. One possible way to improve this strategy might involve the vaccination of carers [caregivers] in an effort to reduce transmission.”The federal government took steps in that direction last month, announcing that nursing homes that serve Medicare recipients would be required to offer flu shots to residents. The government also wants to increase vaccination coverage for nursing home staff members, but there are no plans to require vaccination for them.The new report was published little more than a week after the CDC urged older people and others in high-risk groups to get their flu shots soon. The agency has recommended that flu shots be reserved for the high-risk groups until Oct 24.Jefferson T, Rivetti D, Rivetti A, et al. Efficacy and effectiveness of influenza vaccines in elderly people: a systematic review. Lancet 2005;Sep 22 (early online pubication)See also:CDC information on efficacy and effectiveness of flu vaccinehttp://www.cdc.gov/flu/professionals/vaccination/efficacy.htm
Read also: COVID-19: Jokowi considers adjusting Idul Fitri break, orders regions to be obedientHe added that the government would expand fiscal stimulus eligibility beyond the manufacturing sector. “We will support more business sectors, not just manufacturing, but others that have been affected, such as tourism and transportation,” he said.The government has said the country’s economy may grow 2.3 percent this year, significantly slower than the 5.3 predicted by the 2020 state budget. In the government’s worst-case scenario, the economy could contract by 0.4 percent. The World Bank has also slashed its projection of Indonesia’s economic growth to a baseline of 2.1 percent if the situation starts to normalize by June. (aly)Topics : Coordinating Economic Minister Airlangga Hartarto has reminded businesses that they are obligated pay out Idul Fitri holiday bonuses (THR) to employees despite the economic pressures brought about by the COVID-19 pandemic.“President Joko ‘Jokowi’ Widodo has discussed the business sector’s readiness to pay THR [Idul Fitri bonuses], and [we remind] the private sector that paying out THR is mandatory,” Airlangga said during a virtual press briefing following a Cabinet meeting at the Bogor Presidential Palace in West Java on Thursday, as quoted by Antara News Agency.Airlangga said that the government had allocated Rp 405.1 trillion (US$ 25.1 billion) to fight COVID-19, as stipulated by Government Regulation in lieu of law (Perppu) No.1/2020 on state financial policy and financial system stability for handling COVID-19.
Advocaat said: “Spurs are a very good side with very good individual players and I have seen interviews with some of their players saying they might only have three points but they have outplayed all their opponents – including United. “For me that says enough about the self-confidence of the Spurs players. But we also need the three points so that makes it a very important game for both clubs and a very interesting one as well.” Despite conceding there is a danger his side could be cast adrift in the drop zone Advocaat insists he still needs time to figure out the best set-up for his side following a series of arrivals towards the end of the transfer window. New faces such as Fabio Borini – expected to make his second debut on Sunday following an earlier loan spell, Dutchman Ola Toivonen and US international DeAndre Yedlin – placated Advocaat who was growing visibly frustrated with the lack of depth in his squad. But Advocaat has stressed the importance of not expecting too much too soon from the new boys, particularly Borini who opted to take the opportunity to return to the Stadium of Light after failing to establish himself in Liverpool. Advocaat added: “Everybody is talking only about Fabio but we have four or five other players (up front) and it is always about the total package – it is not just about the one player. “Fabio did really well here when he arrived (before), but after that he didn’t play for one year so you can’t say he is ready because we don’t know – he has only trained with the team for a week and he is already feeling the difference. “We’re happy with the players we brought in because they improve the squad and now we have to find the right balance. He (Borini) is in the squad so he has to be ready. Advocaat is without Yedlin who is ineligible to face his parent club on Sunday, while Adam Matthews, Jordi Gomez and Adam Johnson remain longer-term absentees. Maricio Pochettino’s men have struggled to make an impression in the early stages of the new campaign with three frustrating draws following the narrow opening day defeat to Manchester United at Old Trafford. But Advocaat insists Spurs have proved to be vastly better than their results suggest – leaving his own side facing an uphill struggle to turn around their own nightmare start and move off the foot of the table. Sunderland boss Dick Advocaat has warned his side to beware a Tottenham backlash as both sides go in search of their respective first wins of the Barclays Premier League season at the Stadium of Light. Press Association
With a 3-0 win over the Drake Bulldogs in Des Moines on Thursday night, the Wisconsin Badgers women’s soccer team improved its win streak to five games and will now enter Big Ten Conference play with a 6-1 overall record.The Badgers are now ranked 16th in the NCAA, and second in the Big Ten behind Penn State, who is ranked 5th overall. This Badgers victory was fueled in large part by their underclassmen.Preseason All-Big Ten sophomore forward Dani Rhodes continued her dominance this season with yet another goal, pushing her to a grand total of four goals. Sophomore defender Camryn Biegalski managed to score a goal as well, which was her first of the season. Two, freshmen Lauren Rice and Maia Cella, contributed with an assist each as well.Women’s soccer hopes to continue strong start against DrakeThe Wisconsin women’s soccer team is now riding a four-game winning streak since their 5-0 loss to No. 2 overall Stanford on Aug Read…The youth on this team continues to be a big factor and one of the biggest reasons the team has been playing so well thus far. Juniors Emily Borgman and Victoria Pickett also contributed with a goal and an assist.On the defensive side, the Badgers pitched yet another shutout thanks to the combined goaltending efforts of senior Caitlyn Clem and Jordyn Bloomer, who took over for Clem in the 54th minute of the game.The Badger defense only allowed 3 shots on goal the entire game. They have now let up only a single goal in their last five games.Any team capable of that kind of defensive dominance should be able to compete with nearly any team in the country. Clearly, the Badgers have made the necessary adjustments on defense after giving up five goals to number two overall Stanford. Coach Paula Wilkins has shown resiliency and a strong ability to bounce back after a tough loss. This is looking to be a very promising season for Wilkins’s girls.Women’s soccer: Head Coach Wilkins continues to build tradition of success in MadisonPaula Wilkins, University of Wisconsin women’s soccer team head coach, is one of the coaches with the most wins in Read…Following this victory over Drake, the Badgers now have nine days off in preparation for their Big Ten opener at home in Madison against the unranked Minnesota Gophers. The Gophers are now 3-1-2 on the season after a win in double overtime against Providence on Sunday.These Badgers have had plenty of preparation for Big Ten play with games against top five teams Stanford and Virginia, so they should be able to maintain this level of success against Minnesota and beyond.
The commission also approved funding for a project to improve safety at railway grade crossings along the Metrolink system at Van Nuys Boulevard and Buena Vista/Vanowen streets. The overall project cost is about $14 million, most of which has already been funded from several state, local and federal sources; Wednesday’s commission action provided about $600,000 toward that overall funding. The CTC allocated nearly half of the $640 million for the first phase of the Exposition Line, 8.5 miles from the existing Metro Rail station at Seventh Street/Metro Center. The line will head south toward the University of Southern California, then along Exposition Boulevard and end at Washington/National in Culver City. Construction on the first phase started last year and is scheduled for completion in 2010. The second phase, still in the planning stages, will connect Culver City to the beach in Santa Monica. SACRAMENTO – Los Angeles commuters got some long-sought relief Wednesday as the California Transportation Commission greenlighted a costly light-rail project to aid Westside commuters but provided only slight aid to the San Fernando Valley. The funding comes after months of being stalled amid a legislative budget deadlock but now means that several projects can move forward, including $315 million for the Exposition light-rail line project. “(This) ensures continued progress without interruption in building the Expo light-rail line to Culver City and ultimately to Santa Monica,” said the Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors chairman, Zev Yaroslavsky, in a written statement. “It hastens the day we can finish the project and bring mass rapid transit and a measure of genuine traffic relief to the people of West Los Angeles.” While there had been concern that cuts in transportation funds by Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger would jeopardize some of the projects, the commission determined that funds were available and approved the money unanimously with no debate. “It’s a very important day for Los Angeles,” said Assemblyman Mike Feuer, D-West Hollywood, who chairs the budget subcommittee on transportation. “This is absolutely fundamental to the future of not only this line, but public transit in Los Angeles. The Exposition Line is a foundation for what can be, to alleviate congestion throughout our region.” Metro had already begun construction on the first phase, so failing to win approval for the last state funding piece would have sent agency officials scrambling for other sources. “I think Metro would have moved to delay other projects, because this project is under construction,” said David Yale, deputy executive officer with Metro. He said the Metro board has a list of projects it wants to pursue but has not allocated funding because it was waiting for state action on the Expo Line. Other Los Angeles projects approved by the commission included widening the off-ramp from the 105 Freeway onto Sepulveda Boulevard near Los Angeles International Airport. Officials say traffic on that off-ramp often backs up onto the freeway during busy times, causing crashes and additional freeway congestion. The project costs $7.6 million. harrison.sheppard @dailynews.com (916) 446-6723160Want local news?Sign up for the Localist and stay informed Something went wrong. Please try again.subscribeCongratulations! You’re all set!