Flu vaccination benefits for elderly called modest

first_imgSep 23, 2005 (CIDRAP News) – Researchers who reviewed 64 studies report that influenza vaccination is only modestly beneficial for elderly people overall, with nursing home residents benefiting more than people living on their own.”Our findings show that, according to reliable evidence, the effectiveness of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccines in elderly individuals is modest, irrespective of setting, outcome, population, and study design,” says the report by Tom Jefferson and four colleagues, of the Cochrane Vaccines Field, based in Alessandria, Italy. The study was published online yesterday by The Lancet.The researchers found that flu vaccines, when well matched to circulating flu strains, reduced the risk of hospitalization for flu or pneumonia by 45% for elderly (65 or older) nursing home residents. For people living at home, flu vaccines were 26% effective in preventing hospitalization for flu or pneumonia. However, vaccination didn’t significantly lower the risk of laboratory-confirmed influenza in either group.The team searched five databases for studies of the effectiveness of flu vaccine in preventing influenza, flu-like illnesses, and related hospital admissions, complications, and death. They found 64 studies from the past four decades, including five randomized trials, 49 cohort studies, and 10 case-control studies, that met their criteria.For elderly residents of nursing homes who received vaccines well matched to circulating flu strains, the vaccines yielded risk reductions of 23% for flu-like illness, 46% for pneumonia, 45% for hospitalization for flu or pneumonia, 42% for death from flu or pneumonia, and 60% for death from any cause. However, vaccination yielded no significant benefit when the match with circulating flu strains was poor or unknown.The benefits were smaller for elderly people living in the community, according to the authors’ analysis of 20 cohort studies. Vaccines didn’t significantly reduce the participants’ risk for flu, flu-like illness, or pneumonia. With well-matched vaccines, risk reductions were 26% for hospitalization for flu or pneumonia and 42% for all-cause mortality. Vaccines did not reduce the risk of hospitalization for heart disease or the risk of death from respiratory disease.However, vaccination looked somewhat more beneficial for community dwellers when the authors adjusted for confounding variables, including sex, age, smoking, and other illnesses. In that analysis, vaccines reduced the risk of all-cause mortality by 47% and lowered the risk of hospitalization by 24% for heart disease and 22% for respiratory diseases.The authors write that no firm conclusions could be drawn from the five randomized controlled trials they analyzed. However, in analyzing the two trials that had “adequate” randomization and blinding, they found that vaccines were 43% effective in preventing flu-like illness and 58% effective against flu in community-dwelling older peopleThe study’s main findings show somewhat smaller benefits than those cited by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Information on the CDC Web site says that for older people in nursing homes, flu immunization can be 50% to 60% effective in preventing flu-related hospitalization or pneumonia and 80% effective in preventing flu-related death. Also, the CDC says that community dwelling older people who get flu shots can lower their risk of hospitalization for pneumonia or flu by 30% to 70%.In response to the new study, the CDC issued a statement today emphasizing that vaccination remains the best way to protect older people from flu and its complications. The agency acknowledged that flu vaccines are not 100% effective and that older people and those with chronic diseases may develop less immunity than healthy young adults.The CDC said the finding that flu vaccination is more effective for nursing-home residents than for community-dwelling older people “is unexpected and not consistent with other data, including information on immune response to vaccination.”The study authors write that on the basis of their findings, “We believe efforts should be concentrated on achieving high vaccination coverage in long-term care facilities coupled with a systematic assessment of the effect of such a policy. One possible way to improve this strategy might involve the vaccination of carers [caregivers] in an effort to reduce transmission.”The federal government took steps in that direction last month, announcing that nursing homes that serve Medicare recipients would be required to offer flu shots to residents. The government also wants to increase vaccination coverage for nursing home staff members, but there are no plans to require vaccination for them.The new report was published little more than a week after the CDC urged older people and others in high-risk groups to get their flu shots soon. The agency has recommended that flu shots be reserved for the high-risk groups until Oct 24.Jefferson T, Rivetti D, Rivetti A, et al. Efficacy and effectiveness of influenza vaccines in elderly people: a systematic review. Lancet 2005;Sep 22 (early online pubication)See also:CDC information on efficacy and effectiveness of flu vaccinehttp://www.cdc.gov/flu/professionals/vaccination/efficacy.htmlast_img read more

Man City register interest in Arsenal, Barcelona target Upamecano

first_img City are adamant about signing a top class centre-back in the summer. They want to find someone to partner Aymeric Laporte, with names such as Caglar Soyuncu, Pau Torres and Kalidou Koulibaly previously suggested. Read Also:FFP war: Man City demand damages from UEFA for ‘unlawful activities’ Upamecano is the latest to be linked. FacebookTwitterWhatsAppEmail分享 Loading… Manchester City are emerging as another possible destination for RB Leipzig defender Dayot Upamecano. Man City supremos are hitting back hard as they fight for the Champions League future of Pep Guardiola’s men The talented young centre-back is a much wanted player this summer. He is the subject of long term interest from Arsenal, and most recently, Bayern Munich and Barcelona. And now the Manchester Evening News suggests that Upamecano is a priority for City.Advertisementcenter_img Promoted Content7 Truly Incredible Facts About Black HolesUnderappreciated Movies You Missed In 2019Birds Enjoy Living In A Gallery Space Created For ThemEver Thought Of Sleeping Next To Celebs? This Guy Will Show YouYou’ve Only Seen Such Colorful Hairdos In A Handful Of AnimeFans Don’t Know What She Looks Like Now6 Most Overpowered Live Action Disney CharactersThe Very Last Bitcoin Will Be Mined Around 2140. Read MoreWho Earns More Than Ronaldo?7 Of The Wealthiest Universities In The WorldWho Earns More Than Ronaldo?8 Scenes That Prove TV Has Gone Too Farlast_img read more

Safer opioids needed to stem epidemic of overdoses top publichealth doctor

first_imgOTTAWA — Canada’s chief public health officer says the need to increase access to a “safer supply” of opioids is being reviewed with provinces and territories — a move encouraged by a number of public health experts.Tam’s comments come as the Public Health Agency of Canada releases data that says in the first half of 2018, opioid drugs were a factor in more than 2,000 deaths. That’s a higher death rate than the previous year.Tam says a toxic drug supply is causing a key part of this epidemic.Fentanyl, a drug more powerful than heroin, is often mixed into opioids sold on the street, meaning users can’t know the potency of the drugs they take.Tam says the country must “double down” on its efforts to address the opioid crisis, stressing the need for escalated treatment.The health agency found more than 9,000 lives were lost in Canada between January 2016 and June 2018, suggesting the country has not been able to turn the tide on the crisis. The Canadian Presslast_img read more